The Largest Pharaoh Tomb, is that of Seti I, the father of Ramses II. It had already been known as the largest pharaoh tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Now it appears that the tomb of Seti I, who ruled Egypt between 1313-12792 BC, is larger than originally believed. In 1817, Giovanni Battista Belzoni measured the tomb as being 328 ft (107 m) long.
The paintings the tombs in the Valleys of the Kings of the 18th and 19th Dynasties, including those of Seti I, and Ramses II etc. tombs and statutes created in and near their life times show them as brown skinned men. See the many copies on the web and at AfricanHistoryVideos.Com
Ham, according to biblical legend, was one of Noah's three sons, Shem and Japheth were the other two. Noah'S descendants repopulated the earth after the Great Flood. Ham'S descendants are traced to the families of Africa. Ham (Khawm) in Hebrew means BLACK, HOT AND BURNT.
Seti I & Isis
Seti I from his temple in Abydos
Pharaoh Reign 1290â€“1279 BC ( 19th Dynasty )Predecessor Ramesses I Successor Ramesses II Royal titulary Prenomen (Praenomen)Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of ReNomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth , beloved of Ptah
Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy The strong bull, rising in Waset , he who makes life in the two lands
Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet
He who renews the births, strong with a sword who subjugates the nine bows
Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu
He who renews the crowns, he who subjugates the nine bows in all lands
Consort Queen Tuya Children Tia, Ramesses II, Henutmire & Thermuthis (?)Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre Died 1279 BC Burial KV17 Monuments Mortuary Temple of Seti I, Temple at Abydos, Great Hypostyle Hall
Menmaatre Seti I (or Sethos I as in Greek ) was a pharaoh of the New Kingdom Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt , the son of Ramesses I and Queen Sitre , and the father of Ramesses II . As with all dates in Ancient Egypt, the actual dates of his reign are unclear, and various historians claim different dates, with 1294 BC to 1279 BC and 1290 BC to 1279 BC being the most commonly used by scholars today.
The name 'Seti' means "of Set", which indicates that he was consecrated to the god Set (also termed "Sutekh" or "Seth"). As with most pharaohs, Seti had several names. Upon his ascension, he took the prenomen "mn-m3â€˜t-râ€˜ ", usually vocalized as Menmaatre, in Egyptian, which means "Established is the Justice of Re." His better known nomen , or birth name, is transliterated as "sty mry-n-ptá¸¥" or Sety Merenptah, meaning "Man of Set, beloved of Ptah ". Manetho incorrectly considered him to be the founder of the 19th dynasty, and gave him a reign length of 55 years, though no evidence has ever been found for so long a reign.
Seti I and Hathor
After the enormous social upheavals generated by Akhenaten 's religious reform, Horemheb , Ramesses I and Seti I's main priority was to re-establish order in the kingdom and to reaffirm Egypt's sovereignty over Canaan and Syria , which had been compromised by the increasing external pressures from the Hittite state. Seti, with energy and determination, confronted the Hittites several times in battle. Without succeeding in destroying the Hittites as a potential danger to Egypt, he reconquered most of the disputed territories for Egypt and generally concluded his military campaigns with victories. The memory of Seti I's military successes was recorded in some large scenes placed on the front of the temple of Amun , situated in Karnak .
Mummy of Seti I
A funerary temple for Seti was constructed in what is now known as Qurna ( Mortuary Temple of Seti I ), on the west bank of the Nile at Thebes while a magnificent temple made of white limestone at Abydos featuring exquisite relief scenes was started by Seti, and later completed by his son. His capital was at Memphis . He was considered a great king by his peers, but his fame has been overshadowed since ancient times by that of his son, Ramesses II.
Peter J. Brand noted that the king personally opened new rock quarries at Aswan to build obelisks and colossal statues in his Year 9. This event is commemorated on two rock stelas in Aswan. However, most of Seti's obelisks and statues â€” such as the Flaminian and Luxor obelisks were only partly finished or decorated by the time of his death since they were completed early under his son's reign based on epigraphic evidence. (they bore the early form of Ramesses II's royal prenomen: 'Usermaatre') Ramesses II used the prenomen 'Usermaatre' to refer to himself in his first year and did not adopt the final form of his royal title--'Usermaatre Setepenre'--until late into his second year.
Seti's military campaigns
Seti I fought a series of wars in western Asia, Libya and Nubia in the first decade of his reign. The main source for Setiâ€™s military activities are his battle scenes on the north exterior wall of the Karnak Hypostyle Hall, along with several royal stelas with inscriptions mentioning battles in Canaan and Nubia.
In his first regnal year, he led his armies along the â€œ Horus Military road ,â€ the coastal road that led from the Egyptian city of Tjaru (Zarw/Sile) in the northeast corner of the Egyptian Nile Delta along the northern coast of the Sinai peninsula ending in the town of â€œCanaanâ€ in the modern Gaza strip. The Ways of Horus consisted of a series of military forts, each with a well, that are depicted in detail in the kingâ€™s war scenes on the north wall of the Karnak Hypostyle Hall. While crossing the Sinai, the kingâ€™s army fought local Bedouins called the Shasu. In Canaan, he received the tribute of some of the city states he visited. Others, including Beth-Shan and Yenoam , had to be captured but were easily defeated. The attack on Yenoam is illustrated in his war scenes, while other battles, such as the defeat of Beth-Shan, were not shown because the king himself did not participate, sending a division of his army instead. The year one campaign continued into Lebanon where the king received the submission of its chiefs who were compelled to cut down valuable cedar wood themselves as tribute.
At some unknown point in his reign, Seti I defeated Libyan tribesmen who had invaded Egypt's western border. Although defeated, the Libyans would pose an ever increasing threat to Egypt during the reigns of Merenptah and Ramesses III. The Egyptian army also put down a minor â€œrebellionâ€ in Nubia in the 8th year of Seti I. Seti himself did not participate in it although his crown prince, the future Ramesses II, may have.
Ramses II, smiting the enemies of KMT-Egypt north, south, east and west.
Seti I and Maat
Capture of Kadesh
The greatest achievement of Seti I's foreign policy was the capture of the Syrian town of Kadesh and neighboring territory of Amurru from the Hittite Empire. Egypt had not held Kadesh since the time of Akhenaten . Tutankhamun and Horemheb had failed to recapture the city from the Hittites. Seti I was successful in defeating a Hittite army that tried to defend the town. He entered the city in triumph together with his son Ramesses II and erected a victory stela at the site. Kadesh, however, soon reverted to Hittite control because the Egyptians did not or could not maintain a permanent military occupation of Kadesh and Amurru which were close to the Hittite homelands. It is unlikely that Seti I made a peace treaty with the Hittites or voluntarily returned Kadesh and Amurru to them but he may have reached an informal understanding with the Hittite king Muwatalli on theprecise boundaries of the Egyptian and Hittite Empires. Five years after Seti I's death, however, his son Ramesses II resumed hostilities and made a failed attempt to recapture Kadesh. Kadesh was henceforth effectively held by the Hittites even though Ramesses temporarily occupied the city in his 8th year.
The traditional view of Seti I's wars was that he restored the Egyptian empire after it had been lost in the time of Akhenaten. This was based on the chaotic picture of Egyptian-controlled Syria and Palestine seen in the Amarna letters , a cache of diplomatic correspondence from the time of Akhenaten found at Akhenatenâ€™s capital at el-Amarna in Middle Egypt. Recent scholarship, however, indicates that the empire was not lost at this time, except for its northern border provinces of Kadesh and Amurru in Syria and Lebanon. While evidence for the military activities of Akhenaten, Tutankhamun and Horemheb is fragmentary or ambiguous, Seti I has left us an impressive war monument that glorifies his achievement, along with a number of texts, all of which tend to magnify his personal achievements on the battlefield.
Seti's well preserved tomb ( KV17 ) was found in 1817 by Giovanni Battista Belzoni , in the Valley of the Kings ; it proved to be the longest at 136 meters and deepest of all the New Kingdom royal tombs. It was also the first tomb to feature decorations (including The Legend of the destruction of mankind ) on every passageway and chamber with highly refined bas-reliefs and colorful paintings - fragments of which, including a large column depicting Seti I with the goddess Hathor, can be seen in the Museo Archeologico, Florence. This decorative style set a precedent which was followed in full or in part in the tombs of later New Kingdom kings. Seti's mummy itself was not discovered until 1881, in the mummy cache (tomb DB320 ) at Deir el-Bahri , and has since been kept at the Cairo Museum .
His huge sarcophagus, carved in one piece and intricately decorated on every surface (including the goddess Nut on the interior base), is in Sir John Soane's Museum , in London , England ; Soane bought it for exhibition in his open collection in 1824, when the British Museum refused to pay the Â£2,000 demanded. On its arrival at the museum, the alabaster was pure white and inlaid with blue copper sulphate . Years of the London climate and pollution have darkened the alabaster to a buff colour and absorbed moisture has caused the hygroscopic inlay material to fall out and disappear completely. A small watercolour nearby records the appearance, as it was.
From an examination of Seti's extremely well-preserved mummy, Seti I appears to have been less than forty years old when he died unexpectedly. This is in stark contrast to the situation with Horemheb , Ramesses I and Ramesses II who all lived to an advanced age. The reasons for his relatively early death are uncertain, but there is no evidence of violence on his mummy. His mummy was found decapitated, but this was likely caused after his death by tomb robbers. The Amun priest carefully reattached his head to his body with the use of linen cloths. It has been suggested that he died from a disease which had affected him for years, possibly related to his heart. The latter was found placed in the right part of the body, while the usual practice of the day was to place it in the left part during the mummification process. Opinions vary whether this was a mistake or an attempt to have Seti's heart work better in his afterlife. Seti I's mummy is about 1.7 metres (5 ft 7 in) tall.